In loco parentis – Skolans föräldraansvar och föräldrars skolansvar sett genom föreningen Hem och skola 1892-2012

Bakgrund, syfte och teoretiska utgångspunkter
De senaste hundrafemtio åren i svensk historia har barn och ungdomars vardag präglats av skolans värld likaväl som av hemmets. Hur samverkan mellan dessa två betydelsefulla samhällsinstitutioner har sett ut och vilka större samhällsprocesser som har påverkat institutionerna har förändrats över tid. Skolan som offentlig institution, ett redskap för disciplinering, modernisering och demokratisering har genom barn och ungdomar också fått inflytande över den privata sfären. Mitt emellan dessa båda institutioner har föreningen Hem och skola funnits sedan 1892. Organisationen kan betraktas som en sorts semioffentlighet som verkat mellan det offentliga och det privata. Organisationens verksamhet har ibland legat närmare de offentliga myndigheternas hållning i frågor rörande ansvarsfördelning av social och kunskapsmässig utveckling (1940–70-talet). Ibland har man tagit ställning mot det offentliga etablissemanget och försvarat den privata sfären och föräldrars rätt att bestämma.

Syftet med undersökningen är att betrakta skolans föräldraansvar och föräldrars skolansvar genom organisationen Hem och skola under perioden 1892-2012. Tanken är att studien skall kunna belysa andra aspekter av skolans utveckling än den som man kan läsa sig till i läroplaner och utredningar, eller för den delen i personliga biografier. Undersökningen kommer att ha föreningen Hem och skolas centrala arkiv som utgångspunkt men pga. de olika lokalföreningarnas stora betydelse i enskilda frågor inom verksamheten kommer undersökningen också ta hänsyn till dessa.

De teoretiska utgångspunkterna centrerar sig kring samhällsprocesser som kan tänkas ha haft en stor inverkan på ansvarsfördelningen mellan hemmet och skolan då det gäller vilken position barn och ungdomar hade i samhället vid den givna tidpunkten. Perioden fram till 1946 präglas, då det gäller skolan, av moderniseringsprocessen men också av en disciplineringsprocess som märks tydligt i det pedagogiska arbetet. Demokratiseringsprocessen är viktig för att förstå skolans utveckling under efterkrigstiden och nu sammanfallet också Hem och skolas ideal med myndigheternas syn på pedagogik och skolutveckling. Kommunaliseringen av skolan, friskolereformen några år och den ökade invandringen under 1990-talet har skapat andra utmaningar för skolans ansvarsfördelning och föreningen Hem och skola kom här att bli aktuell än en gång. Individualiseringen i skolans värld blir här ett led i att betrakta denna utveckling.

Studiens struktur
Studien tar sin utgångspunkt i 1800-talets folkskola och relationen mellan hem och skola under denna tid. 1892 bildas den första Hem och skola föreningen på Alnön utanför Sundsvall. Studiens första analyskapitel har denna händelse som utgångspunkt. Under perioden 1892-1946 studeras föreningen Hem och skola både ur ett centralt och lokalt perspektiv utifrån frågeställningar om ansvarsfördelning, moderniseringen av skolan och disciplineringen av barnen utifrån aktivitetspedagogiska ideal. 1946 hade föreningen Hem och skola expanderat. Riksorganisationen hade nu 400 medlemmar (föreningar) och man startade också tidskriften BARN. 1946 är startåret för det andra analyskapitlet där demokratiseringsprocessen blir viktig. Det blev nu än viktigare att få med målsmännen i skolans arbete. I skollagen av år 1970 kan man läsa:

Den genom samhällets försorg bedrivna undervisningen av barn och ungdomar har till syfte att meddela eleverna kunskaper och öva deras färdigheter samt i samarbete med hemmen främja elevernas utveckling till harmoniska människor och till dugliga ansvarskännande samhällsmedlemmar.

Hem och skola verksamheten upplevde under 1970-talet ett ökat intresse från både myndigheternas och den pedagogiska forskningens sida. Om det inte skrevs utredningsmaterial om föreningsverksamheten skrevs det avhandlingar i pedagogik där den praktiska nyttan för verksamheten blev viktig. Bl.a. kan man nämna Kerstin Niléhns avhandling: Samspelet mellan hem och skola – Former för kontakt och samarbete mellan lärare, föräldrar och elever i grundskolan (Stockholm 1976). Min undersökning kommer att ta hänsyn till denna forskning eftersom den på ett påtagligt sätt belyser hur skolan och de som forskar om skolan på olika sätt sökte kontakt med föräldrarna. Ansvarsfördelningen var under delar av denna period förhandlingsbar och inbjöd till diskussion.

Det sista analyskapitlet tar upp kommunaliseringen och friskolereformens inverkan på föreningen Hem och skola. Redan i Niléhns avhandling från 1976 antyds det att ett ökat elevinflytande och större valmöjlighet för eleven är betydelsefullt och eftersträvansvärt. Med kommunaliseringen och friskolereformen kom ett ökat fokus på den enskilda individens rätt att välja utbildning och de lokala föreningarna i centralorganisationen Hem och skola kom också att få ett ökat inflytande samtidigt som den ökade invandringen under 1990-talet innebar nya utmaningar i kontaktvägarna mellan skolan och hemmet.

Sammanfattning
Studien syftar till att undersöka ansvarsfördelningen mellan målsmän och skola då det gäller barn och ungdomar i denna verksamhet under perioden 1892-2012. Målet för undersökningen är att visa på och belysa förändringar då det gäller ansvarsfördelningen utifrån begrepp som modernisering, disciplinering, demokratisering och individualisering. Undersökningen kommer att omfatta delar av Hem och skolas centrala arkiv men också lokalföreningar i stads och landsortsmiljö. Också tidskriften BARN kommer att analyseras liksom de aktuella skollagarna och läroplanernas innehåll. Tanken är att studien skall kunna användas genom att ge ett historiskt perspektiv på en verksamhet som under mer än hundra år befunnit sig i en semioffentlighet mitt emellan hemmet och skolan och som under perioden förhandlat och omförhandlat ansvarsfördelningen när det gäller de inblandade parterna.

Deltagare: Anna Alm, fil dr. Historiska institutionen i Lund [projektidé]

Annonser

Emulating Eton: The Paradox of Elite Boarding Schools in the Social Democratic Utopia

The overarching hypothesis of this study is that British-style private boarding schools have during the early 20th century functioned – and still does – as a key institution in the distribution of high positions within the economic elite sphere, not only in England, but in such diverse countries such as the US (including the New England preparatory boarding schools), Switzerland (international boarding schools such as the Intitut Le Rosey), Australia (Geloong School), and the former British colonies in Africa and Asia. Although this thesis cannot capture the full extent of the export of the British boarding school ideal, this case study of its spread to Sweden will illustrate some of the larger structures, or mechanisms, behind it. And by studying the transfer of the boarding school concept, and the ethos it produces, we can increase our knowledge of the transnational mechanisms behind the wider phenomenon of how certain elite groups’ habits, educational strategies and way of life diffuse to other countries.

Collaborators: Petter Sandgren Department of History and Civilization, European University Institute Funding Body: European University Institute- Swedish Research Council

The development of School mathematics and reforms of the Swedish school system in the 20th century: A comparative and historical study of changes of contents, methods and institutional conditions

The development of School mathematics and reforms of the Swedish school system in the 20th century: A comparative and historical study of changes of contents, methods and institutional conditions

The project aims to examine how Swedish school mathematics change in primary school (Year 4-9) during the period 1910-2010 and to identify mechanisms that have influenced the choice of content and methods.

The main question concerns how general school reforms and other attempts to reform school mathematics have impact on educational texts. The focus is on the production of educational texts; both the textual contents and the social conditions for the production of educational texts are studied.

The main material is policy documents, textbooks, teachers’ magazines, books on teaching and exams. The analysis of textual content is based on concepts from curriculum theory: goals, content and method. The project also includes a sociological study of the people who produced the educational texts. The sociological analysis has a prosopographical approach and is based on Bourdieu’s theory of field and capital. In order to discern what is typical for changes in Swedish school mathematics, comparisons are made between Sweden and Germany during the period 1910-2010. Material and people from both Sweden and Germany is studied.

Collaborators: Johan Prytz
Department of Education, Uppsala University
Funding Body: Swedish Research Council

The financing of Swedish popular education, 1872–1991: economic governance,standards and practices between the public and voluntary sectors

The financing of Swedish popular education, 1872–1991: economic governance,standards and practices between the public and voluntary sectors

Swedish popular education has often been characterized as an independent, “free and voluntary” sphere. Even so, it has throughout most of its history been largely dependent on financial resources from the public sphere: the state, the county councils and the municipalities. There has been a lively discussion about the paradoxical relationships between adult education and the state; freedom on the one side, dependency on the other. Still, few studies have analyzed the purely financial side of this problem. This project analyses the financial contributions from the state (and to some extent the local governments) to non-public adult education – folk high schools, public lectures and study circles from the mid 19th century to our own time. What were the rules and conditions for public funding? How large were the actual contributions, and how did they change over time? What impact did they have? How should the funding system be considered in a broader perspective, e.g. in relation to other areas of public expenditure (education and/or culture)?

Collaborators: Samuel Edquist (director), Anne Berg
Department of Education, Uppsala University
Funding Body: Handelsbanken research council

The Emergence of the Democrat: Popular education and the Process of Democratic Subjection in Sweden 1830-1940

The Emergence of the Democrat: Popular education and the Process of Democratic Subjection in Sweden 1830-1940

The purpose of this project is to analyse and explain the emergence, production and reproduction of liberal democratic subjects, by studying one of the most important institutions of the process in Sweden: popular education. Analysing the making of democratic subjects as a political project will problematise the established paradigm that the democratisation processes in the West were natural, successive and uncontested. Our way of approaching democracy is inspired by newer research, which originates from Foucauldian and Gramscian approaches.

We investigate this process in a longer historical perspective, 1830–1940. The main research questions are the following: In what ways did the popular education nurture a democratic mind, and on the other hand, what were the limits of this project – what habits and thoughts were branded non-democratic? Who was not considered a democrat, or not trusted to be part of the group of democratic citizens?

Collaborators: Samuel Edquist (director), Anne Berg
Department of Education, Uppsala University
Funding Body: Swedish Research Council

Foreign Policy and internationalization of Swedish higher education. The Swedish Institute and the academic exchange 1945-2010

Foreign Policy and internationalization of Swedish higher education. The Swedish Institute and the academic exchange 1945-2010

The Swedish Institute (SI) was founded in 1945 with the aim to inform about Sweden and to raise sympathies for the country abroad. SI is a typical example for an institution for a cultural diplomacy institution. One central task of the institute are scholarships for foreign students and researchers for visits to Swedish universities. SI is an institution where foreign and educational policy meet and has played an important role for the academic internationalization from 1945 until today.

This project deals with the SI-scholarhips and the foreigners receiving them and wants to analyze the relationship between cultural diplomacy and the internationalization of Swedish higher education. Starting point is the Swedish interests founding SI focussing the political and economical tasks assigned to it and wether these changed with changing Swedish foreign policy. A quantitative statistical analysis of the incoming foreigners will trace wether changing foreign political and economical interests can be seen in the recievers of scholarships. Important factors are of course country of origin or working field and if this has changed over time. This analysis also gives a picture of the internationalization of the Swedish universities. The project ties together foreign policy and the educational sector, two areas normally not related to another. It will show how foreign policy affects international academic mobility and the Swedish university landscape from an historical perspective.

Collaborators: Andreas Åkerlund
Funding body: Swedish Research Council

Between discipline and self-improvement: Differences in the implementation of Monitorial Education for different social classes in Sweden, approx. 1820-1870

Between discipline and self-improvement: Differences in the implementation of Monitorial Education for different social classes in Sweden, approx. 1820-1870

A system of different schools for different social classes was established in Sweden during the 19th century. In this study the pedagogical implications of this development is analysed regarding the use of monitorial education. In this type of education more experienced students were used as help teachers and the teaching methods were often characterized by drill-like instructions. Monitorial education has often been described as a tool to discipline and control the working classes. A closer look at the situation in Sweden shows however that monitorial education was used also in more prestigious schools with students from higher social classes. In these schools monitorial education was characterized by self-activity and individualization.

In this study I will compare the monitorial education in schools for children from lower social classes (for example Växelundervisningssällskapets normalskola) to schools for children from higher social classes, such as grammar schools (for example Nya elementarskolan and Hillska skolan i Barnängen). The study of the educational practices at these schools will also be complemented by a study of the public debate. In a wider perspective the purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of social class in educational practices. I also hope that my study will increase the knowledge of the encounter between pedagogical ideas and various social environments in a more general manner.

Collaborators: Esbjörn Larsson
Department of Education, Uppsala University
Funding body: Riksbankens Jubileumsfond

The economics of education: The financing of the Swedish elementary school, 1842–1936

The economics of education: The financing of the Swedish elementary school, 1842–1936

During the hundred years that followed the Elementary school act of 1842, the Swedish elementary school system went through an unparalleled development. The number of students doubled from 270 000 in the year 1850 to 605 000 in the year 1950. At the same time the number of teachers rose from 3 500 to 27 500. As a result the costs of the elementary school increased dramatically. Between 1874 and 1942 the expenditures increased from 14 to 268 millions of Swedish kronor, counted in the money value of 1942.

This project deals with the economics of this remarkable development. How was the funding system of these schools designed, in order to cope with expenses that rose nineteen times? How was funds created and distributed in order to finance the increase of the number of teachers? What consequences did such a funding system have for the instruction of the elementary schools? Anglo-Saxon research has shown that the answers to these questions are far from simple. Financing a school system involves balancing demands for higher quality of education with ambitions to keep check of already high costs. It is also a question of choosing between different forms of grants and objects (teacher salaries, school books, schoolhouses etc.). How such decisions were made are the central questions of this project.

Collaborators: Johannes Westberg (director), Esbjörn Larsson, Madeleine Michaelsson, Magnus Svensson, Germund Larsson
Department of Education & Department of History, Uppsala University
Funding body: Swedish Research Council, Handelsbanken research council
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